Overview of Trials and Research

Several labs around the globe are actively researching the mechanisms by which BCG interacts with and modifies the immune system. These include studies ranging from infant prevention trials to interventional trials in adults with existing disease.


Type 1 Diabetes

The Faustman Laboratory at Massachusetts General Hospital in the United States is currently conducting a Phase II clinical trial testing the ability of BCG to reverse type 1 diabetes.


Multiple Sclerosis

The Ristori lab at Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, is conducting at Phase II trial of BCG in multiple sclerosis.



A group of researchers in Denmark, including Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen at Copenhagen University Hospital, is conducting a large study of neonatal BCG vaccinations and autoimmunity. Nigel Curtis at the University of Melbourne, Australia is conducting a large prevention trial.


Mechanistic Research

Many researchers are conducting research that relates to the mechanism of action by which BCG may prevent or treat autoimmunity and atopy. Graham Rook at University College London, United Kingdom, is investigating the “Old Friends Hypothesis”. Gobardhan Das of Jawaharlal Nehru University and the University of Kwazulu-Nata, India, is studying the epigenetics of tuberculosis. Rob Arts of Radboud Medical Center, Holland, investigates remethylation of genes after BCG vaccination. Marila Gennaro of Rutgers University in the United States is studying the Warburg effect and tuberculosis. Hazel Dockrell of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom, looks at BCG biomarkers.


Future Disease Areas

The early success in treating and preventing autoimmunity may lead to testing of BCG in other diseases including Sjögren’s syndrome, celiac disease, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.